Document Type


Publication Date



Japanese Society for Dental Materials and Devices

Source Publication

Dental Materials Journal

Source ISSN



Methacrylate monomers found in many dental materials cause toxicity to dental pulp cells but the mechanism of the toxicity is poorly understood. We used cultured human dental pulp cells to test the effects of three commonly used monomers; bisphenol-A-glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA), urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). The order of toxicity was Bis-GMA>UDMA>TEGDMA. The toxicity correlated inversely with cystine uptake, with TEGDMA stimulating uptake and BisGMA and UDMA inhibiting uptake. Bis-GMA and UDMA induced oxidative stress, while TEGDMA did not. Toxicity correlated poorly with glutathione levels, as all compounds decreased cellular glutathione. TEGDMA is less toxic than Bis-GMA and UDMA likely because it stimulates cystine uptake and does not induce oxidative stress, the enhanced uptake of cystine appears to compensate for TEGDMA’s direct interaction with glutathione. Bis-GMA and UDMA both deplete glutathione and inhibit cystine uptake leading to oxidative stress and cell death.


Published version. Dental Materials Journal, Vol. 38, No. 4 (July 2019): 579-583. DOI. © 2019 The Japanese Society for Dental Materials and Devices. Used with permission.

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