Comparison of Osteogenic Differentiation Potential of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Buccal Fat Pad Stem Cells on 3D-Printed HA/β-TCP Collagen-Coated Scaffolds

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Cell and Tissue Research

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Production of a 3D bone construct with high-yield differentiated cells using an appropriate cell source provides a reliable strategy for different purposes such as therapeutic screening of the drugs. Although adult stem cells can be a good source, their application is limited due to invasive procedure of their isolation and low yield of differentiation. Patient-specific human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can be an alternative due to their long-term self-renewal capacity and pluripotency after several passages, resolving the requirement of a large number of progenitor cells. In this study, a new biphasic 3D-printed collagen-coated HA/β-TCP scaffold was fabricated to provide a 3D environment for the cells. The fabricated scaffolds were characterized by the 3D laser scanning digital microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and mechanical test. Then, the osteogenesis potential of the hiPSC-seeded scaffolds was investigated compared to the buccal fat pad stem cell (BFPSC)-seeded scaffolds through in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro results demonstrated up-regulated expressions of osteogenesis-related genes of RUNX2, ALP, BMP2, and COL1 compared to the BFPSC-seeded scaffolds. In vivo results on calvarial defects in the rats confirmed a higher bone formation in the hiPSC-seeded scaffolds compared to the BFPSC-seeded groups. The immunofluorescence assay also showed higher expression levels of collagen I and osteocalcin proteins in the hiPSC-seeded scaffolds. It can be concluded that using the hiPSC-seeded scaffolds can lead to a high yield of osteogenesis, and the hiPSCs can be used as a superior stem cell source compared to BFPSCs for bone-like construct bioengineering.


Cell and Tissue Research, Vol. 384, No. 2 (May 2021): 403-421. DOI.