Document Type




Format of Original

14 p.

Publication Date



American Psychological Association

Source Publication

Journal of Counseling Psychology

Source ISSN



The authors conducted a 22-year (1988–2009) content analysis of quantitative empirical research that included acculturation and/or enculturation as a study variable(s). A total of 138 studies in 134 articles were systematically evaluated from 5 major American Psychological Association and American Counseling Association journals in counseling and counseling psychology, including Journal of Counseling Psychology, The Counseling Psychologist, Journal of Counseling and Development, Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, and Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. To guide the analysis, the authors conceptualized acculturation/enculturation as a “bilinear” (i.e., developing cultural orientations to both majority and ethnic cultures) and “multidimensional” (i.e., across multiple areas such as behaviors, values, identity, and knowledge) cultural socialization process that occurs in interaction with “social contexts” (e.g., home, school, work, West Coast, Midwest). Findings include the patterns and trends of acculturation/enculturation research in (a) conceptualization and use of acculturation/enculturation variable(s), (b) research designs (e.g., sample characteristics, instruments, data collection, and analysis methods), (c) content areas, and (d) changes in total publications and trends over time. Additionally, meta-analyses were conducted on the relationship of acculturation/enculturation and a few key variables of mental health, adjustment, and well-being. Major findings and directions for future research are discussed.


Accepted version. Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol. 58, No. 1 (January 2011): 83-96. DOI.© 2011 American Psychological Association. Used with permission.

This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record.

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