Document Type




Format of Original

10 p.

Publication Date



American Psychological Association

Source Publication

Training and Education in Professional Psychology

Source ISSN



In this paper, the authors report on the development and initial psychometric evaluation of the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Working Alliance Self-Efficacy Scales (LGB-WASES) with data collected from two studies and 534 counseling trainees. Exploratory factor analysis results yielded a 32-item scale with a three-factor model (a) Emotional Bond, (b) Establishing Tasks, and (c) Setting Goals. LGB-WASES scores were internally consistent and remained stable over a 3-week period. Construct validity evidence suggests the LGB-WASES scores were (a) positively related to general perceptions of counseling self-efficacy and multicultural counseling competency, (b) negatively related to attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, and (d) unrelated to social desirability. Recommendations for future research are also discussed.


Accepted version. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, Vol. 3, No. 1 (2009): 37-46. DOI. © 2009 American Psychological Association. Used with permission.

This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record.

burkard_3156acc.docx (392 kB)
ADA accessible version

Included in

Education Commons