Design Optimization of Spoke-Type PM Motors for Formula E Racing Cars
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
2016 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE)
This paper presents the performance trade-offs in the design optimization of spoke-type permanent magnet (PM) motors for high speed and very high torque density traction motors. An example 18-slot 16-pole machine for a direct drive Formula E race car over the Le Mans driving cycle is considered. Both low speed and extended speed/field-weakening operations are evaluated using high fidelity finite element (FE) simulations, to simultaneously increase the torque density and decrease the power losses over the high energy-throughput-zones of the machine torque-speed plane. The results of the design optimization process yielding 3,400 design candidates are utilized to quantify the performance trade-offs for increasing the power density in spoke-type PM motors. These trade-offs include the impacts on other performance metrics such as power losses, PM demagnetization, and torque ripple. The analysis is supplemented by multi-physics simulation of three counterpart optimized designs, and successful experimental verification of a prototype of one of those three designs which represents a record high power density motor in traction applications.