Date of Award


Degree Type

Master's Essay - Restricted

Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)




At the close of the sixteenth century, the power of the papacy, of the nobility, and of the people was so weakened that the supporters of absolute monarchy, encouraged by religious defection from Rome, ventured boldly to put their theory into practice. Parliaments were dissolved; the tradition of constitutional limitation and represents.ti ve government was abandoned; the religious and civil rights and liberties of the people ware disregarded. Divine right advocates, who proclaimed absolute independence of king from Pope and people, were intent upon destroying the ancient rights of the people and democratic control, which was characteristic of the Middle Ages.