Date of Award


Degree Type

Master's Essay - Restricted

Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

Frank L. Klement


The mid-summer of the mid-war year, 186;, witnessed the bloodiest of New York City's Civil War engagements. This was a battle waged not along the wooded ridge at Gettysburg nor atop the steep Vicksburg bluffs, although it took place almost simultaneously with these celebrated Union victories. This was a spontaneous attack fought by an un-uniformed mob on the crowded, unkempt streets of the New York slums. Here the oppressed ranks of recent Irish immigrants took the offensive against what appeared to be their foremost enemy -- the Negro workers. The occasion for this war within a war was the conscription of New York's first draftees.