Document Type




Publication Date



SAGE Publications

Source Publication

Journal of Interpersonal Violence

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The aim of this study was to explore the neighborhood-level association between alcohol outlet density and non–intimate partner violent victimization rates among females. Violent offending and victimization are more prevalent for males than females, and most research on alcohol outlets and violence emphasizes males. Studies that do focus on alcohol outlets and female violent victimization tend to focus on intimate partner violence (IPV), yet non-IPV events are over three quarters of all female violent victimization incidents in the United States. We collected data on violent victimization rates, on- and off-premise alcohol outlet density, and neighborhood-level covariates of violence rates for Milwaukee block groups. We used spatially lagged regression models to test this association, to compare non-IPV results with those for overall female violent victimization rates, and to compare results for females with those for males. Our findings showed density of both on- and off-premise alcohol outlets was positively associated with non-IPV female violent victimization rates, which is an important finding given lack of research on this topic. We also found results for females (both overall and non-IPV violent victimization) were generally the same as for males, but the effect of off-premise outlets on non-IPV female violent victimization rates was weaker than the same association for males. Our findings have clear policy implications for local jurisdictions. Alcohol outlet density is important for both female and male violent victimization. Limiting the licensing of alcohol-selling establishments, especially those that engage in irresponsible retail practices, may be a suitable approach to address violent victimization.


Accepted version. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 35, No.15-16 (August 2020): 2639-2662. DOI. © 2020 by Sage Publications. Used with permission.

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