Document Type




Format of Original

26 p.

Publication Date



SAGE Publications

Source Publication

Journal for the Study of Pseudepigrapha

Source ISSN


Original Item ID

doi: 10.1177/095182070401400101


This article investigates the roots of Enoch-Metatron’s liturgical office of celestial choirmaster which plays a prominent role in the Merkabah tradition. Although references to this office of the exalted patriarch are absent in 1 Enoch, Jubilees, Genesis Apocryphon, and the Book of Giants, this article argues that the roots of Enoch-Metatron’s liturgical imagery can be traced to the Second Temple Enochic lore, namely to 2 Enoch, the Jewish apocalypse, apparently written in the first century CE. This article investigates a tradition found in 2 Enoch 18 where the translated patriarch encourages the celestial Watchers to start liturgy ‘before the Face of the Lord’, that is, in front of the divine Kabod, the exact location where Metatron will later conduct heavenly worship of angelic hosts in the Shi‘ur Qomah and Hekhalot accounts.


Author version. Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha, Volume 14, No. 1 (2004): 3-29. DOI: © 2004 SAGE Publications. Used with permission.